Association of APOBEC3G genotypes and CD4 decline in Thai and Cambodian HIV-infected children with moderate immune deficiency
1 HIV-NAT, the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, 104 Ratchadamri Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand
2 Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan
3 Program in Integrated Molecular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
4 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
5 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
6 SEARCH, the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand
7 Social Health Clinic, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
AIDS Research and Therapy 2012, 9:34 doi:10.1186/1742-6405-9-34Published: 24 November 2012
Human APOBEC3G is a host defense factor that potently inhibits HIV replication. We hypothesize that HIV-infected children with a genetic variant of APOBEC3G will have a more rapid disease progression.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve children, aged 1–12 years old with CD4 15-24% and without severe HIV-related symptoms were enrolled. The children had CD4% and absolute CD4 counts every 12 weeks and HIV-RNA every 24 weeks until 144 weeks. ART was started when CD4% declined to < 15% or AIDS-related events developed.
APOBEC3G genetic variants were performed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Random-effect linear regression analysis was performed to correlate APOBEC3G genotypes and disease progression.
147 children, 35% male, with a median (IQR) age of 6.5 (4.3-8.8) years were enrolled. CDC N:A:B were 1:63:36%. Median baseline values were 20% for CD4% 605 cells/mm3 for CD4 count and 4.7 log10copies/mL for HIV-RNA.
The frequencies of APOBEC3G genotypes AA (186H/H), AG (186H/R), GG (186R/R) were 86%, 12%, and 2% respectively. The APOBEC3G genotype GG was associated with a significant decline in CD4% -5.1% (−8.9 to −1.2%), p<0.001, and CD4 counts −226 (−415 to −34) cells/mm3, p<0.001 by random-effect liner regression analysis. No significant associations of APOBEC3G genotypes with HIV-RNA changes overtime (p=0.16) or progression to CDC B and C (p=0.49) were observed.
APOBEC3G genotype GG was significantly associated with a more rapid decline in CD4. APOBEC3G’s antiviral effects on HIV disease progression in children should be further explored.