Hyperlactatemia in a group of HIV patients living in Yaounde-Cameroon
1 Laboratory of Biochemistry, Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon
2 Department of Biochemistry and Physiological Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
3 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
4 Intensive Care Unit, Mother and Child Centre, Chantal Biya Foundation, Yaounde, Cameroon
5 Laboratory of Hematology, Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon
AIDS Research and Therapy 2014, 11:2 doi:10.1186/1742-6405-11-2Published: 15 January 2014
Background and aim
Prolonged exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with adverse effects such as hyperlactatemia. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for developing hyperlactatemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cameroonians on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
We conducted a cross-sectional study from January to April 2012 involving 91 HIV-infected patients receiving ART for at least 12 months and 30 HIV-infected patients who have never received ART (ART-naïve patients). Plasma lactate levels were determined after at least 12 hours of overnight fasting and hyperlactatemia defined as lactate concentrations ≥ 3 mmol/L. The prevalence of hyperlactatemia was determined and the risk factors were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model.
The mean lactataemia was significantly higher in the group of HIV patients currently taking ART than in the ART-naïve one (2.3 ± 1.3 and 1.7 ± 0.7 mmol/L respectively, p = 0.002). Patients on first line ART regimens had significantly higher lactatemia than those on second line regimens (2.5 ± 1.5 and 1.9 ± 0.7 mmol/L respectively, p = 0.014). The prevalence of hyperlactatemia in HIV patients receiving ART and in ART-naïve HIV patients was respectively 18.7 and 6.7% (p = 0.095). ART-exposure (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 – 27.84; p = 0.042) and being on a first line regimen (aOR 16.22, 95% CI 1.57 – 167.91; p = 0.019) were independent strong predictors of hyperlactatemia.
Hyperlactatemia was not rare in our study population. Being on a first line regimen constitutes an important risk factor for developing hyperlactatemia. Measurement of plasma lactate may be useful in optimizing the management of HIV-positive persons on ART.